Are case control studies retrospective?

Case-control study designs are also retrospective and assess the history of the subject for the presence or absence of an exposure.

Are case-control studies prospective or retrospective?


Case-control studies are retrospective and cannot therefore be used to calculate the relative risk; this a prospective cohort study. Case-control studies can however be used to calculate odds ratios, which in turn, usually approximate to the relative risk.

Can case controls be retrospective?

By definition, a case-control study is always retrospective because it starts with an outcome then traces back to investigate exposures. When the subjects are enrolled in their respective groups, the outcome of each subject is already known by the investigator.

Is retrospective and case-control study same?

Case control study inspects individuals by outcome/disease status. But, the retrospective cohort study inspects individuals by their exposure status.

Is a case study retrospective?

A retrospective case series is the description of a group of cases with a new or unusual disease or treatment. With a case-control study, cases with and without the condition of interest are identified, and the degree of exposure to a possible risk factor is then retrospectively compared between the 2 groups.

What is the difference between retrospective cohort and case control?

While retrospective cohort studies try to compare the risk of developing a disease to some already known exposure factors, a case-control study will try to determine the possible exposure factors after a known disease incidence.

How do you know if a study is retrospective or prospective?

Prospective vs retrospective studies

  1. In prospective studies, individuals are followed over time and data about them is collected as their characteristics or circumstances change.
  2. In retrospective studies, individuals are sampled and information is collected about their past.

What is a retrospective case-control study?

A retrospective case control study is one that uses existing data to compare two groups. For example, people who have developed a disease might be compared with a group of people who have not.

Can a case report be retrospective?

Case reports can be retrospective or prospective in nature. Retrospective design is the most common and simplest form of writing. In prospective case report the author plans out patient care and data collection ahead of time.

What are 2 limitations of case-control studies?

The main limitations of case-control studies are:

  • ‘Recall bias’ When people answer questions about their previous exposure to certain risk factors their ability to recall may be unreliable.
  • Cause and effect.
  • ‘Sampling bias’
  • Other limitations.

Is a case study prospective?

Prospective case study methods are those in which an individual or group of people is observed in order to determine outcomes. For example, a group of individuals might be watched over an extended period of time to observe the progression of a particular disease.

Can case studies be prospective?

It may just be possible to have a ‘prospective case-control study’ if one is interested in exploring secondary outcomes from a group selected based on a primary outcome. Case-control studies are in general retrospective, and the cohort studies are in general prospective and many references use these term as synonyms.